Definitions of Terms Used for Assessibility

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Definitions of Terms Used for Assessibility
Indiana Center for Assessible Materials (ICAM)
National Instructional Materials Access Center (NIMAC)
PATINS Project

APH Reading Media
The literacy medium, whether print or braille, used by an individual for gaining basic
academic literacy skills.

Primary Reading Media codes
Braille – students primarily using Braille in their studies
Large Print – students primarily using large print in their studies
Auditory – students primarily using a reader or auditory materials in their studies
Prereader – students working on or toward a readiness level
Nonreaders – nonreading students; students who show no reading potential

Chafee Qualified
The 1931 Act to Provide Books for the Adult Blind was expanded in 1952 to include
blind children, and again in 1966 to include persons with physical impairments that
prevent the reading of standard print. The current eligibility criteria is:
A. Blind persons whose visual acuity, as determined by competent authority, is
20/200 or less in the better eye with correcting lenses, or whose widest diameter
of visual field subtends an angular distance no greater than 20 degrees.
B. Other physically handicapped persons are eligible as follows:
a. Persons whose visual disability, with correction and regardless of optical
measurement, is certified by competent authority as preventing the reading
of standard printed material
b. Persons certified by competent authority as unable to read or unable to use
standard printed material as a result of physical limitations.
c. Persons certified by competent authority as having a reading disability
resulting from organic dysfunction and of sufficient severity to prevent
their reading printed material in a normal manner.

Competent Authority
In cases of blindness, visual disability, or physical limitations "competent authority" is
defined to include doctors of medicine, doctors of osteopathy, ophthalmologists,
optometrists, registered nurses, therapists, professional staff of hospitals, institutions, and
public or welfare agencies (e.g., social workers, case workers, counselors, rehabilitation
teachers, and superintendents). (ii) In the case of a reading disability from organic
dysfunction, competent authority is defined as doctors of medicine who may consult with
colleagues in associated disciplines.

Digital Rights Manger (DRM)
A Digital Rights Manager (DRM) is a LEA staff member, designated by the
superintendent or their appointee, responsible for requesting, receiving, disseminating
and tracking the usage of copyrighted accessible materials for students qualified with
print disabilities. The DRM will register electronically with ICAM and sign a Limited
Use Agreement Form (indemnity contract) assuring the district will adhere to the terms of
IDEIA and current copyright laws with regards to the files received from the ICAM.

The DAISY format is a file format standard for digital (electronic) books. A DAISY
Digital Talking Book (DTB) is a multimedia representation of a print publication. There
are three types of DAISY DTBs: (1) audio with navigation, (2) audio and full text, and
(3) text with no audio. A Digital Talking Book is envisioned to be, in its fullest
implementation, a group of digitally encoded files containing an audio portion recorded
in human speech; the full text of the work in electronic form, marked with the tags of
descriptive mark up language; and a linking file that synchronizes text and audio
portions. In a digital talking book, a reader has random access to book sections via a table
of contents. The digitization of books intended for persons with disabilities provide
opportunities to increase the quality and availability of information to print disabled

Distance Vision
Refers to the ability to distinguish objects and pictures and read at distances of 10 feet or
more. Distance visual acuity, usually measured at 20 feet, is reported using standard eye
chart notations. Corrected distance vision for the right eye (OD) and the left eye (OS) is
accomplished by the eye specialist through the use of corrective lenses.

Oculus Dexter, term used by an eye specialist when referring to the right eye.

Oculus Sinister, term used by an eye specialist when referring to the left eye.

Functional Literacy Assessment
A functional literary assessment is a process of systematically selecting learning and
literacy media for students with visual impairments that will support the literacy goals to
be attained. It is typically conducted by a teacher certified in the area of visual
impairment. The vision specialist will assess the child's ability to apply reading and
writing skills to practical tasks in everyday life and will measure the primary learning
channel or channels, the best literacy medium, and the efficiency of that literacy medium
(reading rates, accuracy and comprehension). The assessment of literacy goals, learning
modes and media is a continual process to be reviewed on-going by the vision specialist.

Functional Vision Assessment
A functional vision assessment is typically conducted by a teacher certified in the area of
visual impairment. The specialist is a certified teacher of the visually impaired, trained to
evaluate how a child utilizes vision. The vision specialist will measure and observe the
visual methods a child uses throughout a routine day and will speak with parents,
teachers and other caregivers who know the child well. Information about how the child
uses vision, including measures of near and distance vision, visual fields, eye movements,
and responses to specific environmental characteristics, such as light and color, as well as
the conditions and purpose of use are assessed. Suggestions for instructional procedures,
modifications-adaptations, and additional tests are included in the assessment report. The
vision specialist will review records and may talk to the eye doctor to learn more about
the child’s visual condition.

Indiana Center for Accessible Materials (ICAM) is s a web based system designed to
provide support to Indiana Local Educational Agencies in meeting the NIMAS
regulations of the Individuals with Disabilities Improvement Act of 2004.
The ICAM system is owned, maintained, and provided to all Indiana schools by the
Office of the Associate Superintendent, the Indiana Department of Education. Access to
the system, technical support, and professional training are provided through the ICAM
and PATINS projects without a fee.

Not Chafee Qualified
A student who does not meet the eligibility requirements of 1966 revision of The 1932
Act to Provide Books for the Adult Blind, 2 U.S.C. 135a, but who may still require
instructional materials in an accessible format as determined by the student’s case
conference committee. A student who in not Chafee qualified may not access files from
the National Instructional Materials Center (NIMAC). Accessible instructional print
materials may be obtained from sources such as commercial or publisher sources, other
authorized entities or created by authorized agencies (LEA). When accessible materials
are created from scanned copies or from other authorized entities, the LEA must have
purchased a copy of the material for this purpose.

National Instructional Materials Accessibility Standard (NIMAS) refers to a collection of
consistent and valid XML-based source files created by K-12 curriculum publishers.
From these well structured source files, accessible, student-ready alternate-format
versions of textbooks and core materials (e.g., braille, e-text, Digital Talking Book, etc.)
can subsequently be created and distributed to qualified students with disabilities.
NIMAS files are not student ready versions. IDEA 2004, P.L. 108-446, establishes the
NIMAS as a national standard and requires states and local districts to adopt the NIMAS
for providing textbooks and instructional materials to students who are blind or print

Print Disability
Print disabilities means individuals who are eligible or who may qualify in accordance
with the Act entitled "An Act to provide books for the adult blind," (2 U.S.C. 135a), to
receive books and other publications produced in specialized formats. (See Chafee
Qualified Definition)

Print Instructional Materials
Print instructional materials are printed textbooks and related printed core materials that
are written and published primarily for use in elementary school and secondary school
instruction and are required by a SEA or LEA for use by students in the classroom.

Restricted Visual Field
Inability to view the full extent of the area visible to an eye (from one side to the other)
when looking straight ahead, measured in degrees.

Secondary Reading Medium
A literacy medium that supplements print or will be developed later as a primary readingwriting

Secondary and Third Reading Media codes
Braille – students using braille to some extent in their studies.
Large print – Students using large print to some extent in their studies.
Auditory – Students using a reader or auditory materials to some extent in their
Not applicable - nonreaders, prereaders, or students with no secondary or third
reading media.

Secondary Visual Factors
Any additional visual condition, factors or concerns, as a direct or indirect result, of the
primary condition.

Specialized Formats
Specialized formats are braille (tactile graphics) large print, audio, or digital text which is
exclusively for use by blind or other persons with disabilities.

Student Test Number

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